The principle, Construction, and Working

The Helium-Neon laser was the first continuous laser. It was invented by Javan, Bennett and Harriot in 1961. The laser has three components Laser medium: it is in the form of He-Ne gas mixture Pumping process:

The inelastic atom-atom collision Resonator cavity: it is made of a full reflector and a partially reflecting plates parallel with high accuracy He-Ne gas laser is the four energy levels in which first He atoms are excited to bring the Ne atoms in required excited state by the atom-atom inelastic collision pumping process, the population inversion is achieved between the metastable and ground states.

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